The announcement of the indictment of seven Iranian hackers is part of a larger effort to reshape adversary thinking about the costs of attacking the United States. There has been a sequence of linked events - the PLA indictments, the response to Sony, the threat of sanctions before the Xi-Obama summit, and now these indictments. The effect is to push back against foreign-state hackers. These actions create consequences for malicious actions in cyberspace. When there is no consequence or penalty, there is no incentive to stop. Cyberspace has been largely penalty-free until recently. The indictments signal to our opponents to realize that attacking the United States can have consequences.